Environmental pollution is one of the biggest threats lớn life as we know it. Pollution affects the air we breathe, the water we drink, và the we depend on. If pollution severity to increase; human, animal, and plant populations will break down as they will not be able to with a drastically changing environment. There are factors that affect the rates of dispersal and degradation of pollutants. We need khổng lồ understand the effects of these factors so we know the locations in which pollution will cause the most damage. Today we shall be the types of environmental pollution, their effects, and the factors affecting pollutants.

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Environmental Pollution Definition

Environmental pollution is any addition of erroneous substances or energies to lớn the environment, that causes a change to lớn the of the environment. These variables can be air, water, soil, noise, and light and changes to lớn their natural values can have profound for và human life.

Types of Environmental Pollution

Pollutants can occur in any phase (solid, liquid, and gas) and can even be in the size of energy transfer such as heat, light, or noise. Let"s have a look at some examples of environmental pollution:

Air pollution

Air pollution is caused by the release of gaseous particles, molecules, và particulates into the atmosphere. Small particulates are released as by-products from industrial reactions at high temperatures và pressures và from the exhaust pipes of vehicles. Dangerous gaseous molecules such as greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, nitrous oxide), sulphur dioxide, và chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are released via the of fossil fuels, industrial processes, agriculture, and deforestation.

Particulates are molecules or that are separated into minute, separate particles. Examples include dust, soot, & metal particulates.

Water pollution

Water pollution involves the addition of polluting gaseous, liquid, and solid particles, molecules, or particulates that alter the of a water source. There are many causes of water pollution from human activity: the overapplication of pesticides and fertilisers in agriculture may cause them to runoff into nearby waters, industrial discharge dangerous chemicals like metal, solvents, acids, and alkalis, while improperly treated sewage millions of disease-carrying pathogens & unwanted nutrients. The addition of heat energy can pollute the water too, this can gradual as a result of global warming or instant from power nguồn plant water. water in the industry is the water that factories & power plants use to regulate the temperature of their machinery. This water may sound, but it is much warmer than oceans, lakes, and rivers so when it is released it will cause a sudden influx of heat.

The plethora of bacteria và organic material in sewage is a dangerous! These bacteria will break down highly organic dead & faecal matter và release huge amounts of nutrients into water sources. Sudden increases in nutrient availability can cause algal populations khổng lồ increase rapidly and form algal blooms on the surface. These blooms will block sunlight và suffocate the"s oxygen when broken down by aerobic

Soil pollution involves the influx of unwanted chemicals khổng lồ soils, causing them to lớn và less fertile. The overuse of fertilisers can cause soils to too many nutrients, while the overuse of pesticides can poison soils & reduce biodiversity. Industrial discharge from landfills can introduce a host of unwanted chemicals (hydrocarbons, metal, radioactive elements) lớn soils. Intensive agriculture such as ploughing và tillage can physically disturb soils & make them more vulnerable.

Light Pollution

Light pollution any change to lớn the normal cấp độ of light (ultraviolet or infrared radiation) to lớn a location. Highly developed cities are the biggest driver of light pollution because of the widespread use of neon và fluorescent lights (they emit ultraviolet radiation). Abnormally bright skies can wildlife and cause eye defects. Ultraviolet radiation can cause genetic mutations and cancer.


Figure 1: hotspots of light pollution in Europe.

Noise pollution

Noise pollution is an increase in the amount of noise heard in a certain area. Causes of noise pollution include heavy industrial machinery và vehicles (e.g. On a site), or loudspeakers và megaphones at events with lots of people. Noise pollution can put ức chế on và people that live near the source of the noise.

Heat pollution is the influx of heat to lớn the atmosphere or hydrosphere that causes a rise in temperature. In the hydrosphere, these increases in temperature can cause marine species lớn stressed & force them to migrate khổng lồ regions, disturbing food webs. In the atmosphere, an increasing temperature can have such as rising sea levels, melting ice sheets, increased precipitation, và droughts.

Radioactive pollution is the addition of radioactive chemicals to the atmosphere, lithosphere, or hydrosphere. Radioactive chemicals include plutonium, uranium, and radium và cause mutations & cancer in animals and humans.

Effects of Environmental Pollution

Now that we have looked at the types of environmental pollution và what causes them, let"s have a look at the effects:

Climate Change

Anthropogenic air pollution is the major driver behind modern climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) to lớn the greenhouse effect in the atmosphere and warm the Earth"s surface. Environmental implications of a warming planet are melting ice sheets, rising sea levels, increased precipitation, và more frequent severe weather.

The release of aerosols actually the planet. These particulates are efficient in absorbing and scattering infrared radiation from the sun. However, aerosols are harmful to humans and can cause lung damage và also alter precipitation patterns & atmospheric wind circulation.


Figure 2: melting ice sheets from global warming.

Human Health

Dangerous particulates released from industry & vehicles (soot, dust, metals) can damage human respiratory systems & cause cancer. The release of CFCs into the atmosphere depletes the ozone layer meaning that more ultraviolet radiation reaches the Earth. UV radiation increases the chance of genetic mutation và eye defects. Drinking polluted water can cause cholera, typhoid, and hepatitis A in humans, whereas using polluted water for washing can cause skin irritation & fluorosis when brushing teeth with it. Polluted soils can result in disease spreading in agricultural produce. If this disease is not noticed, it can spread between human populations.

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25% of carbon dioxide emissions are absorbed into the oceans causing ocean acidification, which impairs the growth of organisms requiring carbonates for their shells & exoskeletons. UV radiation from ozone layer depletion can affect the developmental stages of larvae & producer populations too. Water pollution is a massive for aquatic The release of toxic, radioactive, & carcinogenic chemicals can kill wildlife species. Sedimentation fluxes from industrial and agricultural discharge can smother producers & cause alternative bottom-dwelling populations khổng lồ rise in high-nutrient Algal blooms from nutrient overload can result in anoxic dead zones where no life can survive.


Here are a few examples of how environmental pollution is destroying terrestrial

Melting ice sheets and rising sea levels are destroying habitats in polar regions.Droughts và more frequent severe weather are causing habitat fragmentation in warmer regions. Dangerous particulates from industry và vehicles can clog respiratory systems & cause cancer in animals too. drinking water can poison wildlife and spread disease in

Acid rain is rain with a pH of less than 5.2 và is formed by nitrous oxide or sulphur dioxide reacting with rainwater to khung nitric acid và sulfuric acid. Acid rain can damage soil & materials.

Gaseous acid deposition is when soils & waters are by nitrous oxides và sulphur dioxide without them forming acid rain.

Desertification is the process by which fertile soils deserted & unable to tư vấn life. Resource exploitation lượt thích mining and deforestation, intensive agriculture, and droughts can cause desertification.


Overuse of fertilisers can break down Some wild plants will be unable khổng lồ survive in a high-nutrient environment & local aquatic may be affected. Therefore, the will function less effectively causing crops to lớn be more susceptible to disease, while irrigation of nearby waters will be negatively impacted. The use of unnatural pesticides will soils & disrupt interspecies dynamics within the Overgrazing of pastures can restrict the succession of soils. succession is the process by which the wildlife demographic of a habitat develops over time.

The rate at which pollution disperse and pollutants degrade to release dangerous chemicals is important in assessing how dangerous a point source of pollution will be.

Point source pollution can be pinpointed to lớn a specific area and is easily quantified and measured (and hopefully restricted).


Here are the factors that affect the dispersal of the different types of environmental pollution:

Soil pollution: aerated soils will allow to lớn pass through them more quickly. Increased runoff from rainfall can result in soil pollution on a wider scale as well.


The rate at which pollutants degrade is important because they will often release poisonous chemicals & toxins as they are broken down. Here are some factors that affect the rate of degradation:

Temperature: microorganisms will break down matter much quicker in warmer They will release vast amounts of nutrients và poisonous toxins.Moisture: microorganisms thrive in moist too so rates will be high. pH: the presence of alkaline substances in the soil can help to lớn neutralise acidic soils caused by acid deposition. Microorganisms work faster at specific pH"s as well.Oxygen availability: aerobic are much more efficient at breaking down matter than anaerobic ones, & require a supply of oxygen to survive.

Environment và Pollution Severity - Key takeaways

Environmental pollution is the addition of unwanted chemicals that cause a change khổng lồ the environment.Water pollution can drinking water for humans and animals and cause disease. Nutrient overload can cause algal blooms và resulting anoxic dead zones. Soil pollution can reduce producer populations & has negative for the food webs of entire Temperature, moisture, pH, and oxygen availability all affect the rate at which pollutants degrade.

Pollution affects the air we breathe, the water we drink, & the we depend on. If pollution severity to lớn increase; human, animal, và plant populations will break down as they will not be able khổng lồ with a drastically changing environment.

What is environment and pollution severity?

The severity of a pollutant is determined by its persistence, chemical nature và

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What are the major causes of environment pollution?

Anything that includes the addition of unwanted chemicals that cause a change to lớn the environment is environmental pollution. Examples of environmental pollution are air, water, soil, noise, and light pollution.